The age of equestrian culture: American Indian Horse
Before I begin, I want to bump Donovin Sprague, Black Hills State University instructor, author and historians to thank. Descendant of Chief Hump and Crazy Horse family. Dave Reynolds also helped me in this research, as part of the historical literature of this research uses.
The conquistadors adopted a regulation, shortly after their arrival in America, the prohibition of all Indians in the constituency. They encouraged the Indians to believe that horses eat human flesh. In 1582, Antonio Espejo, to say the Indians' horses Indians have been …". It did not take long to recognize the Indians want to be men like the Spaniards, they could also roll.
As farms have increased the need for the vaqueros, the cow was working across the Indian serfs fulfilled. Santa Fe was the most prominent place on the distribution of the Mustang in the Spanish North American landscape and indigenous tribes. At the beginning of horses by Indians raids on Spanish colonies in Santa Fe, El Paso and the Rio Grande reached. They also have a lot of looting Chihuahua and Sonora in northern Mexico. Although many tribes acquired horses, they are the tribes of the plains and the pilot soon in circulation and warriors on horseback, we hear a lot about history. The horse was Master herds of bison for food, shelter, bedding, tools, saddles, lariats and the core of their religion.
The early 17th century experienced a new era for American Indians and whites, that date marked the introduction of the horse in Indian culture. In a hundred years the population horses in the tens of thousands among the peoples of the Perce Comanche, Crow, Cheyenne, Sioux, Arapaho, Kiowa, Nez, Pawnee and Blackfoot were grown. He had a certain level of wealth, commerce and class, the primary means of hunting buffalo and an instrument of tactical warfare.
Galloping with nothing more than a layer of the horses back from shame to monitor strapped to generations of Western European runners. They were Indian and his inseparable Spanish Mustang Stock Exchange, share a deep sense of friendship and understanding which has not reached there.
War of the Blackfoot was not on the acquisition of territory or other strains of extermination directed, but the capture of horses from enemy tribes. Most raids Blackfoot were conducted, and from poor families, their Los tried to improve. These shock troops offered the training ground for young warriors. They went without a horse, but acquired by learning the art of horse Steal. The raiding parties on horseback have been men who experienced lead people into hostile camps had been captured and impressive amounts of horsepower, and return with low losses.
In the Comanche the horse has a new source of economic and political power by controlling access to the horse, a horse owner could control access to the buffalo hunt. Local hunting the pre-horse Comanche cultural left each mounted buffalo hunters. American observers in the Comanche in the early 19. Century have reported concentrations of horses numbering 3,000 to 5,000, with most Spanish brands. successful warriors had horses 50-200 each. In 1867, Labadi, reported 15 000 horses, an Indian agent in Comanche camp on the plains of Texas.
Among the Sioux, the horse was more than simple animal like "medicine" with supernatural power was considered. Owning a horse was a man of personal medicine, hunting and war. Over time, the horse was their symbol of wealth and a medium of exchange. could kill the man with the fastest horse, more buffalo, and so taken a different position, the less fortunate. The horse was the path of economic stability and social position. Large herds of horses are not easily gained. The horses were not bred successfully, although attempts were made to the Sioux. The main method by the camp was Wild horses capture or steal them from other tribes reconstituted.
Crows bred horses, mustangs cordate, beautifully mounted and had more horses than any other tribe on the Missouri. The Crow and the Blackfeet were constantly attacks the other horses.
Nez Perce were famous for their mastery of the Spanish horses Appaloosas as known, the name of the Palouse River in western Idaho and eastern Washington. Lewis and Clark wrote, "they have large white spots irregularly distributed and mixed with black foot dark brown Bey and others, but much the greater part are of uniform color Stars, stripes and white feet …". It is believed that the Nez Perce practiced farming selective. Spotted Horse has occurred, where the Spanish horses ran. Nex Perce that has begun to raise a considerable collection individuals or only a pair or two is not known. Most of these horses were the Lewis and Clark noted the Spanish brands. Nez Perce were protected from raids by the mountains and this allows them to make such reproduction.
In the book of John C. Cremony "The Life among the Apaches, "written in 1868, he wrote:" … selected after a successful raid, in which many animals they have taken, and with the best for the district, to withdraw into some remote fastness to light over the rest, as they eat …". This last fact highlights a important. It is through this method they were selective breeding. Just keep horses, best suited to their purposes and the rest survive. As the Apaches were probably the first native to get North America, the horse, they used this selection process Spanish Mustangs qualities of endurance, speed, agility and stamina, traits that promote their survival depended. Although there is not a conscious decision to be the results the same goals.
Good horses were abundant in the tribes of north because the northern regions are more conducive to the growth in livestock. It was the reason, later moved to Texas Longhorns Breeders their Wyoming and Montana, fill them and add weight.
With the acquisition of the Northwest Territory, the Northern Europeans began the eastern United States to move to the west and came in contact with the Plains Indians and their herds of Spanish mustangs. As in the 19 end century, the horses of the Plains Indians no longer just the Spanish blood, like many bands of wild horses. In horses where they could find them, cross Indian plains from the east with their horses stock of English Americans. J. Frank Dobie said: "These horses were also patriots" American, "You were not a race, they are no longer fixed in type as an American. The dogs, they were taller than the Spanish-Indian-Western Horse. For the majority of American Patriots has become synonymous with superior size. "
The Age of Horse Culture century lasted from 17 to the late 1800s. The Spanish Mustang transformed the lives and culture of the Plains Indians and they infused the history of the West familiar with some Riding of the boldest and most courageous. Unfortunately, there is not enough information from the recorded period. Many artists of the time were not very good on anatomy and not exactly describe the Indian horse. Indians had an oral history, and if the miracle of photography, the plains were the photographers, the horse seemed to ignore in the context of Indian culture and society, focusing rather on the portraits of Indians in all their finery. We will focus on the European accounts of that what is seen or said, they encountered strains different from it. American Indian and Spanish Mustang were made for each other, they both had extreme desires for independence and survival and love of this vast country that feeds them.
About the Author
I live on a twenty acre ranch in the Black Hills of South Dakota. I have two Spanish Mustang horses and a cat. I put work as a photographer and illustrator up at stock photo sites and manage SpanishMustangworld.com and a radio show at www.talkshoe.com/tc/28533 about Spanish Mustang Horses. I also help at healthyandliving.org to write articles about natural grass fed beef and community supported ranching.
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